Signs of discrimination -

Read the definition of discrimination, the passage on Jim Crow laws and the passage on Black Codes below, then answer questions 4.1 and 4.2 on your worksheet.

Definition of Discrimination
treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person or thing based on the group,class, or category to which that person or thing belongs rather than on individual merit: racial and religious intolerance and discrimination. (

Jim Crow Laws
"In 1877, as the Reconstruction era (1865–77), the period following the American Civil War (1861–65), drew to a close, the former Confederate States of America were freed from the control of the federal troops that had been stationed there to ensure the fair treatment of the freed slaves. With the troops gone, Southern whites began to assert policies of segregation (separation of blacks from whites in public places). Although the Thirteenth Amendment, Fourteenth Amendment, and Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution had freed African Americans from slavery and declared them citizens with enforceable rights, white Southerners remained unwilling to share communities and facilities with African Americans as equals.

In 1875, Congress had passed a Civil Rights Act guaranteeing African Americans access to public facilities. When some minor efforts were made to enforce the act, southern state legislatures reacted by creating an entire legal system to separate the races in every aspect of daily life. The result was a web of public policies and practices—the “Jim Crow laws”—that relegated persons of color to second-class status."
"Jim Crow Laws." U*X*L Encyclopedia of U.S. History. Sonia Benson, Daniel E. Brannen, Jr., and Rebecca Valentine. Ed. Lawrence W. Baker and Sarah Hermsen. Vol. 4. Detroit: UXL, 2009. 829-831. Gale Student Resources in Context. Web. 21 Feb. 2012.

Black Codes
"Following emancipation many states sought to impose restrictions on African Americans to prevent them from enjoying equal social status with whites. These restrictions were designed to not only hold blacks in a subordinate condition, but to impose restrictions upon them not unlike those which prevailed before the Civil War. Black codes imposed heavy penalties of "vagrancy [homelessness]", "insulting gestures", curfew violations [regulations requiring people to remain indoors during specified hours] , and "seditious speeches [inciting or causing people to rebel against the state]." In November 1865, Mississippi was the first state to enact such laws."
"Black Code of Mississippi, November 1865." DISCovering U.S. History. Detroit: Gale, 1997. Gale Student Resourcesi n Context. Web. 21 Feb. 2012.

Now, look at the pictures on this page and read the poem below then complete question 4.3 on your worksheet.


Once riding in old Baltimore,
Heart-filled, head-filled with glee,
I saw a Baltimorean
Keep looking straight at me.

Now I was eight and very small,
And he was no whit bigger,
And so I smiled, but he poked out
His tongue, and called me, 'Nigger.'

I saw the whole of Baltimore
From May until December:
Of all the things that happened there
That's all that I remember

Countée Cullen

Segregated drinking fountains in Montgomery, Alabama

Countee Cullen, “Incident” from My Soul’s High Song: The Collected Writings of Countee Cullen. Copyrights held by the Amistad Research Center, Tulane University, administered by Thompson and Thompson, Brooklyn, NY.